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Materials and Communications: Pt. 1

Summary: This article explores our use of materials from the 1950s until the birth of US NavPress in 1975. It reviews our efforts to help people gain a solid grasp of the Scriptures and to support our ministries and objectives. The article addresses our overseas policy conference in 1961 because it was seminal in discerning the changing role of ministry materials as we advanced into the nations.


Early Foundations
Primary International Developments in the 1950s
Defining the Purposes of Navigator Materials
Materials in the 1960s and 1970s
Publishing in Asia  

Materials are probably a universal need in the Navigator ministry. This is because of our commitment to multiplying disciples and laborers. Materials facilitate the passing on of the things we teach. They are tools of our trade. But we should not build our works with borrowed tools. We may have to begin that way but, in the course of establishing the ministry in a new part of the world, we must diligently pursue the forging of new tools that fit the situation.
Jim Petersen1

Early Foundations

The early background of our history with materials2 was described by Jim Hayden at our Forest Home Conference in 1946. A few excerpts follow:

Demand came in the 1930s from high school boys wanting to study the Word of God, so they started with Daws in a chapter study format. Daws designed the old STS3 with an emphasis on selecting the key passage in each study. Then, after quite a while, the ABC blank was worked out in 1940 to meet the needs of a high school group [that] met over lunch. Later, ‘We incorporated the Eminent Truth, adding to our studies the seeking out of a doctrinal truth and learning to write it up. Sanny worked out the AlphaMega in which we also helped the students develop two real messages for their own hearts: one as regards God and one as regards human relationships. Later came chapter analysis method and chapter summaries.

As we began our correspondence work just before WWII began, we needed a study that could be sent through the mail without too much explanation . . . and we found that the most effective for new babes in Christ were the courses by Keith L. Brooks.4 I would say that, by the end of the war, we had used around ten thousand of these KLB courses.5

At the end of 1948, Daws wrote to our Reps and co-laborers, concerning charging for materials. The precipitating factor was that there had been a lingering deficit of $2,500 at our Los Angeles HQ resulting in “little or no pay allowances.” He concluded:

We believe that each headquarters ought, in most cases, to charge for the supplies that they give out. . . . The money that is received by the outlying headquarters for supplies could be used to send with whatever else might be possible to help pay for materials. To date, this headquarters has assumed practically all of the responsibility for them, not only for all those with whom we are in touch but also for the outlying headquarters.

. . . A letter is going out from this office to a large number of those who have been blessed through memory materials, indicating to them that our ministry is taking on far greater proportions than ever before. This letter gives them an opportunity to know that there is a need and that they may have a part in more ways than one. This is the result of prayerful planning for a considerable length of time. Both the Navigator directors and Navigator council have met and prayed this matter over very carefully.

The above letter from Daws provided a price list, ranging from one-half cent for notebook sheets to $1.50 for letter memory folders. This activity was a transitional phase toward making needs known.

Although this article focuses on our later history, it may be helpful to note some early milestones:6

  • 1934     Topical Memory System is introduced: three verses on each of thirty-five topics
  • 1940      Navigator Log introduced
  • 1940    “ABC Blanks” introduced for high schoolers; “Eminent Truth” added later.
  • 1940    Sanny developed the “AlphaMega,” later merged with the “ABC: start of chapter analysis.
  • 1940    We start our correspondence courses, using Keith L. Brooks’s materials
  • 1943    Learning from evangelistic meetings at the National Guard Armory; Sanny helps; Daws develop the initial “Bible Rations,” named after military B-rations.
  • 1948     Combined BR and IT booklet is specially translated into Mandarin for Daws during his travel in China
  • 1948     Kent made the aluminum mechanical Wheel illustration for Daws7
  • 1951     Sanny identifies five basic elements for personal Bible study and designs inductive character and topical studies
  • 1951     Roy Robertson stays on in Taiwan and writes four Bible studies
  • 1951     Doug Sparks arrives in Taiwan and develops the Bridge illustration with Robertson
  • 1951     Navigators develop counselor training and follow-up procedures for Billy Graham evangelistic crusades
  • 1951     Launch of Initial Bible Study (IBS) written by Skinner, Daws, Rosenberger. One thousand pilot copies sent to Memphis Crusade
  • 1951     First corporate brochure “What is a Navigator?” is produced.
  • 1951     IBS, as above, is replaced by new Introductory Bible Study
  • 1952     Robertson sets up Hong Kong distribution center: twenty-five lessons printed on John’s Gospel and the Wheel
Participation with Billy Graham

By 1951, Dawson was persuaded that we should relinquish our policy of not making known our financial needs. His report8 to our staff on the directors’ conference in San Francisco included the following:

Means for securing funds for an expanding program were discussed. Of course, first always is prayer. Then we discussed our human responsibility. We definitely feel that the Lord wants information about the work to get out to the right people. The Holy Spirit used facts. It is our responsibility to get these facts out. We have never had a publicity department and have even fought publicity. But since the Navigator work is not supported by Navigators entirely and we must go to the outside and since the Lord’s people have a right to know what God is doing, we definitely feel that a program of getting out information is necessary. The Lord is blessing in the presentation of the facts to certain individuals by Sanny. He had ten interviews to this date. The response in each case was enthusiastic.

Daws also gave reasons why he found Billy Graham’s invitation to join his evangelistic team attractive. Though he clearly could not give all his time to the Graham team, he felt it should be a high priority. Some of his reasons:

  • The converts are definitely entitled to help and we are in a position to give some help even though it is on a mass basis.
  • The Navigators have never sought publicity but, with an expanding program, now need it. This could give good publicity.
  • It would help to show that The Navigators definitely are interested in mass evangelism.
  • It would give Daws an opportunity to be of personal help and blessing to those on the team, as well as what it would do for him.

His decision was soon made. Dawson spent ten days with Graham in Fort Worth during March of 1951 and planned to spend three weeks in Shreveport beginning in early April in order to study “follow up on big meetings.” Don Rosenberger joined him as another full member of the Graham Team. Daws recruited others to help on specific campaigns. One can tell that he was full of enthusiasm about our new Graham connection:

This whole set up has made for a great and effectual door, open to us to accomplish many things: broaden our own vision, teach us new lessons, enable us to respond to the scores of calls which come to us from churches and groups to supply ideas for growth and follow up. It will furnish us with new areas of manpower and resources. The whole thing is a shot of spiritual adrenalin in our Navigator work along lines which are so much upon our hearts, including evangelism in every phase.9

“Over four thousand decisions were made in Shreveport and into the hands of each person went B-Rations,”10 as Daws recollected. “Many have written in for the course.11 I talked to converts who, because of the B-Rations, were fully convinced of the blessing and value of getting into the Word and were pulling ahead with more drive than the average Christian of two, five, or then years.”12

Daws went on to lead preparations for training counselors in the Memphis Crusade. Clearly, there was a lot to iron out. Daws asked our staff for prayer because “we have problems with sound equipment, rain, usher problems, parking problems, personnel problems, personal work problems, advisor problems, decision card problems, distribution of converts’ names problems, lack of local support in prayer, conflict of meeting times and so on and so on.”

The flow of campaigns pressured us with their schedule. Sanny recalled that “Crusade materials were tools which we constantly improved. People asked us for our layout and we said, “We will give you a layout of the materials for the last Crusade, but these are already out of date. We are never satisfied with what we have already used.”13

Meanwhile, during 1951, Sanny had identified five basic elements for personal Bible study and designed our inductive character and topical studies.

Materials Developed in Taiwan

Roy Robertson, forced out of China in 1949, settled briefly in Taiwan.14 His aim was to help Dick Hillis of Youth for Christ, as Dick and other missionaries who had served on the mainland began to reap a harvest in Formosa in November 1950. After returning home to bring their families to Formosa, the head of the Presbyterian Mission on the island invited them to form a new missionary organization to be known as Orient Crusades, now called OC International.15

We had asked Doug Sparks to leave Macalester College before completing his degree and he sailed for Formosa in May.16 Roy had already written four Bible studies and joined Doug in designing the Bridge illustration.

In Formosa, thanks to Doug and others, there were eventfully a total of between 260,00 and 280,000 people who had at least begun our correspondence course. Daws visited Formosa and said, “If you do not start training some men, we will send you home. We did not send you here to run a correspondence course.” Daws was tough. So, Doug Sparks trained some men. One of them was David Liao who worked at training counselors and setting up crusades.

As Daws later wrote: “Formosa was the first country we pulled out of because we felt our contribution was no longer needed. This also did more for Navigator public relations when they saw we meant what we said. Not that Formosa has been won, but in the context in which we came we felt we could go elsewhere.17

By the time that Sparks left Taiwan in 1955, well over one hundred thousand nationals had engaged in personal Bible study.

Expansion of Newsletters, Scripture Memory, and Bible Studies

By 1953, the circulation of the Log was around 8,000, using a hand-operated Addressograph machine. Twenty years later, in 1973, our circulation was 67,000 copies, using an early computer; this included editions in Dutch and Japanese.18

In 1953, the Log reported that we were introducing the Instruction in Righteousness pack in order to bridge the gap between the “B-Rations” and the Topical Memory System. The format was worked out by Daws in Switzerland. It was soon reproduced in French and Spanish.19

In summary, by the early 1950s, materials available in English were:

Scripture Memory

  • Beginning with Christ: “B-Rations”
  • Going on with Christ: Instruction in Righteousness
  • Special Packs: four packs of thirty-six verse guides each

Bible Studies

  • Introductory Bible Study
    • Lessons on Assurance: matches Beginning with Christ
    • Lessons on Christian Living: matches Going on with Christ
    • Search the Scriptures: STS Chapter Analysis

Also in 1953, we increased our output of news; the Log and Nav-O-News were to be sent out on the fifteenth of each month, alternately. The Nav-O-News audience was around five hundred and designed for our close-in people.20

A few years later, in 1957, at least some materials were available in many languages. Here is a partial list:

Kikuyu, Danish, Greek, Tagalog, Kilega, Dutch, Italian, Portuguese, Arabic, English, Japanese, Spanish, Armenian, Esperanto, Korean, Swedish, Cambodian, French, Cebuano, Vietnamese, Chinese, German, Ilocano

By then, numerous requests for permission to translate were flowing in. Here is our response,21 probably typical, to a request for permission to translate the TMS into Miskito, a trade language in Nicaragua. In declining the request, we said:

We have found that, wherever materials we translated, little more was accomplished than would be possible by providing verses of your own selection for the people. There are hundreds of verses of Scripture which are good for new Christians. . . . Our purpose in reserving the right of translation is so that we may use them as ‘the opening wedge’ when we are able to enter a particular area to do the full job we believe the Lord has put on our hearts. The materials we have prepared, apart from specially trained men, produce no better results than any other memory courses without the careful follow-through which entails complicated office procedure. Our Orient office uses the TMS as we do with a well-established office of five full-time workers and many nationals in Tokyo. There are several full-time workers with thirty-three full-time nationals in the Taipei office.

Primary International Developments in the 1950s

Now for some highlights22 as regards materials during the 1950s, supplementing the earlier list which ended in 1951:

  • 6/52    Five thousand Japanese complete Bible study 1.
  • 5/53    Doug Cozart produces first Bible study and memory materials in Korean, working with the Pocket Testament League and distributing 250,000 Gospels to Korean troops, half at gatherings and the other half left with the Korean chaplains to distribute to other soldiers.
  • 1953   Warren Myers arrives in Hong Kong: five hundred active in correspondence    courses.
  • 1/54    Materials are translated into Tagalog and Armenian.
  • 9/54    Materials are translated into six Indian languages. Myers was on a temporary visa for India, serving the YFC correspondence school in what was then Bombay.
  • 10/55   Doug Sparks returns from Taiwan
  • 12/56   Materials translated into Kikuyu, for use among the Mau Mau. Within a few months, more than 2,500 Mau Mau terrorists had received Christ. “They now want Swahili.”23
  • 6/57    New English edition of the TMS introduced,24 after charting the progress of some 66,000 enrollees.
  • 11/57   Between 9,000 and 10,000 Africans are enrolled in Bible correspondence courses in Kikuyu, distributed from our HQ in Kenya. New enrollments are coming in at nine hundred a month, with at least 755 being introduced by students already in the courses. Ed and Ruth Reis had recently arrived to continue the work among ex-Mau Mau terrorists.25
  • 9/59    The TMS is now in thirteen languages. It is distributed in English from South Africa and New Zealand.
  • 9/59    Danish TMS is completed.
  • 9/59    Esperanto TMS is completed, distributed from our Swedish office.
  • 1959   Noel Nelson prepares to move for two years to Pakistan: supervises production of Nav materials in Urdu.
  • 1960   Billy Graham holds Safaris for Souls, in Kenya. Our Rehoboam Mwiiri heads the follow-up office and chairs the prayer committee. We train four hundred counselors in Kikuyu, Swahili and English. There were 1,500 decisions for Christ.

Consistently, two of our most powerful and enduring tools for communicating the basics of the Christian life were The Hand and The Wheel. The Hand was already in use by Daws when he included it as one of the seven emphases of The Big Dipper26 in 1948. The Wheel was designed by Daws around 1930, with supporting verses. It went through several iterations until it stabilized in the early 1980s with Christ as the hub and the “obedient christian in action” as the rim.27

The purchase of Glen Eyrie in 1953 had made us much more capable of producing materials. For example, Daws wrote in 1954, “We expect to get underway on new helps on memory, final editing and printing of the Bible courses that will follow the IBS and replace much of the KLBs,28 other types of studies for interested non-Christians and Christians only partially interested, helps on soul winning etc.”29

At the end of 1952, Daws had asked that the staff30 send to HQ “several samples of all materials and supplies printed for the work . . . including stationery, envelopes, form letters, business cards, study and memory materials, advertising material, etc. We expect some day to have a little library set up which will include a file of the work in each area.”

By 1959, our library which was then housed in castle room 303 at the Glen was full. Chuck Farah commented that we did not need “a bunch of theological books, but those geared to Bible-related subjects or to business management—how-to books.”31 We appealed to colleges and seminaries for any duplicate books. Our aim was two thousand volumes.32

In 1959, Lorne Sanny looked back with emotion at our abundant use of materials, especially in the early 1950s. He told our staff:

I want to bring out one big mistake. Over-emphasis on materials. We can’t do anything unless we have the Bible studies and B-Rations in French was the idea. Big printing bills resulted. All the headaches and heartaches that had to do with printing. . . . I have had more of this in printing in the Billy Graham team and the Navs than of anything else and, if it is tough in the USA, try to get something done overseas. So if you start working on materials, you don’t have time to spend with anybody. After you have had all your rounds with translation, you take it to the printers and they print it backwards, upside down and every other way. Then, in order to distribute the materials, you have to have a post office box, an office set-up and months and years go by and you still are getting ready and not working with people. Most people overseas think that the Nav approach is materials. George Sanchez went to Central America and we had said, ‘Let’s go down with no materials and see what happens.’ What happened was that Billy Graham went to the Caribbean with Charlie Riggs in charge of follow up and what did they want—materials. Do you have to have ABC blanks to study the Bible? Do you have to have the TMS to memorize? I look at materials as parallel to language. Out of the ministry grows the need for materials. Just as out of Roy’s (Robertson) ministry grew his need for the language. You get the best tools you can to help in the ministry. They are next in line. They are not the ministry. We got the idea that materials were the ministry. This lesson we learned overseas.33

It is of interest to gain some sense of the scope of our basic work in materials at the end of the 1950s. Looking at the last three years of the decade as regards the TMS,34 we see the following shown at the link below: 

Table 1: TMS Use, 1957-1959

Despite the above trends, 1959 saw a large increase in demand for printed materials: the increasing ministry of our staff, new projects and buildings to be explained, and monthly mailings that nearly doubled. Thus, the total number of printed impressions rose in 1959 by almost 100 percent to 4.2 million with an average run of 10,200. Consequently, we used outside printers more often.

In 1959, our budgeted complement in the printing department was nine people, with a peak of fifteen during the summer training program. We purchased new equipment and prepared to acquire an offset press in 1960.35 By the end of 1960, our materials consisted36 of:

  • Materials for working with individuals and personal-contact group
  • TMS
  • Bible study materials – John Lessons, KLB, and Wheel Booklets
  • Chapter analysis materials
  • Miscellaneous materials: prayer pages, memory pages, and other notebook materials
  • Materials also propagated by correspondence
  • TMS
  • Bible study materials
  • Literature: books, booklets, leaflets, helps; examples: Great is Thy Faithfulness, The Pathfinder, How to Mark a Bible, etc.

Our range of materials was growing. When Jim Chew was living with Warren Myers in Saigon in 1960, Warren was working on Studies in Christian Living and shared that such Bible studies were vital in order to focus on the “how” of disciple-making. At that time, we also had the Wheel series and the John series which he had worked on in India, as well as “Beginning with Christ,” “Going on with Christ,” “Twelve Scripture Truths,” and, of course, the Topical Memory System. By 1963, Warren Myers was back at the Glen serving as our training program director.

Despite our continuing emphasis on print, we were aware of how the world was changing:

Significant work is being done in the field of radio, TV, and movies. In the new era, literature is of increasing significance. The world is becoming literate at the rate of fifty million annually. But note: The State of Kerala in India has the highest percentage of Christians in that country. It also has the highest literacy rate. Yet it was the first state in India to vote in a Communist government. Why? The Communists themselves indicate the answer when they say, ‘The missionaries taught the Indians to read; we gave them literature.’37

Defining the Purposes of Navigator Materials

This exhaustive (and exhausting!) conference covered every aspect of our missions program, including the function of materials. It was the first occasion on which our senior missionary leaders had interacted in depth over the implications of continuing to expand The Navigators beyond US borders.

Although many leaders attended at least one of the thirty-eight sessions of the OPC, the core participants were our five overseas leaders: Roy Robertson, George Sanchez, Bob Boardman, Doug Sparks, Waldron Scott.

In what follows, I attempt to convey the flavor of the many discussions on materials by name. First, however, I summarize their overall conclusions:38

  • Materials are needed for an overseas man to carry out his objective.
  • Our materials need to be revised, improved, and supplemented with new courses.
  • It was the consensus that one man should be set up at headquarters to spearhead the revision of the existing materials and the development of new materials.

Such simple statements were the result of considerable interaction which sought to distinguish between materials for an individual or a group, or correspondence courses, as well as literature in general.

Because the OPC was such a watershed for us, with competing strands of thought and experience, the following pages offer summaries of the principal opinions as they developed during the seventeen days that the directors met. Bear in mind that the focus of the OPC was our market situations outside the US. This was the first intensive debate among our leaders about the purposes of materials and how they could be improved to reflect our move away from mass evangelism to the deeper objective of the 1960s. We were shedding the posture of being a service to other missions, and downgrading our correspondence courses. Henceforth, we would spread into the nations under our own “flag.”

A constant overall theme was Sanny’s persistent and rigorous determination to demand reasons for our opinions as well as to distinguish between primary and secondary goals.

Warren Myers observed that, in order to find key men, we have to make contact with as many men as possible. Thus, it would be desirable but not essential to begin to print at least the early parts of the TMS in more languages. Should we put a higher priority on the TMS than on Bible study, or publish both simultaneously? This depends on how they are used. If we use them as we are now doing in the US, less effort and administration will be required.

Jim Downing added that we saw God’s providential leading in the previous ten-to-fifteen years. He said we may not have known why God had led us in the production of materials, but that we had sensed His blessing. Scott added that materials were valuable in helping a man in the disciplined life and aided our focus on reproducing.

Sanny sharpened his point: “I would assume . . . that what we have been engaged in has not apparently helped us in producing reproducers, and therefore should be curtailed.” He added that our work in the Graham Association had produced almost no reproducers. As Bob Munger had told him, people were trained but it did not build in the drive to be personal workers.39

Although Waldron Scott pointed out that we had been involved in public evangelism on every continent, a new prioritizing of personal evangelism was emerging: “a constant sowing of the seed on all levels.”

Bob Boardman said that literacy had been rising throughout the world and that people had been hungrier than ever for literature. However, Downing added that Frank Laubach had said that two-thirds of the world’s population couldn’t read or write. So, he added, we would not want to get tied into a method that wasn’t workable in many parts of the world.

Doug Sparks stated that some people had been converted using materials. Furthermore, these resources were welcomed by churches and missions. Materials provided a large mailing list from which we could secure additional support, and they were a basis for continuing ministry if we were forced to leave a country.

Rod Sargent added that, in the case of Esperanto, our courses had gone into seven countries where we could not go ourselves and had performed several of the ministries we had mentioned.40

Scott mentioned how materials directly supported our objective.

  • Help in the disciplined life
  • Help when meeting with a man
  • Help that man meet with someone else

What, Sanny then asked, were the general disadvantages or constraints of a materials ministry?41

Responses included:

  • May divert us from a primary to a secondary ministry
  • May become the objective
  • May duplicate expense and effort because other groups are producing materials
  • Will require finances and administration
  • Will take time to develop and produce

Given these constraints, Sanny then inquired which materials were most useful in our own personal ministries.

  • Farah: 7 Minutes with God
  • Sparks: Materials geared to small evangelistic study groups; modified STS
  • Myers: A memory course
  • Farah: We need to transition from question and answer to advanced Bible study
  • Sanchez: Keep in mind local educational patterns; for example, the rote system
  • Boardman: In the Orient, people are stronger in completing the Bible study than they are in Scripture memory.

Robertson mentioned the sequence that Hugh Harris uses in his Nav ministry in Japan, in starting with a new Christian:

  • Question-and-answer Bible studies
  • Verse studies
  • Book studies
  • Biographical studies
  • Topical studies
  • Devotional studies

Robertson summarized that our objective, whether in studies or memory work, was to get people functioning on their own. All of our materials should be geared to this end. We wanted to move people forward until we could wean them from materials and they could proceed without them.

The directors reconvened for a further discussion the next day. Sanny continued to probe on the place of materials in our overall objective:42

  • Farah: Tools for extending our ministry; Myers agreed
  • Sanny: Too broad; instead, an aid to extending our ministry
  • Downing: There are many good Bible studies, but they don’t share our purpose.
  • Sanny: Implements are necessary to doing anything. A mechanical contrivance or tool is designed for some specific purpose to which it is adapted. Purpose is not to get people to do STS. It is to get them to study the Bible. STS is a secondary aid to a primary function, the primary function being the studying of the Bible. So, what kinds of tools are we primarily interested in?
  • Downing: There are many good Bible studies. The only reason we have Bible studies is that there is none that meets our need, which is a Bible study with a purpose.43

Sanny then asked whether this is the main thing that God had called us to do. We want to get people into the Word and so we should review our approaches. As others “develop a vast literary program, perhaps we should retreat.” In the light of our objective, to what extent should we produce, use and distribute tools or materials in the particular countries where we decide to operate? Or not to operate?

Robertson replied by saying that although there were many materials on the market today, people were not getting into the Word for themselves. People looked to us, in some measure, for this contribution.

Scott commented that we adhered to five principles of Bible study: original investigation, written reproduction, pass-on-ableness, personal application, consistent, and systematic. We could review the available materials in the evangelical market and, if they contained the five principles, we could use them. If not, we should produce our own.

Sanny continued to press. He asked, What are our primary objectives in a country? What are we trying to do with a person?

Myers responded that we were trying to get each person to have the best grasp of the Bible in the most reasonable length of time in the most usable way.

Sanny noted that we were strong on personal application.

Bob Foster asked whether our method of Bible study was to give our people a grasp of the Bible or a walk with the Lord. We weren’t set up for the former. Or was it to get them started down the Christian road?

Robertson declared that basic to our work was feeding people in such a way that they would continue to feed themselves, taking them to the source of the fountain.

Foster said he would agree if we were talking about the Hand,,44 but he questioned Robertson’s statement in regard to our Bible studies.

Robertson commented that we were assuming that everyone was doing our ABC study, but this was not the way that we trained people.

Sanny encouraged us to focus on our purpose in using tools. Was it to get an overall grasp of the Bible, or was it restricted to what a person needed in his or her walk with the Lord? Did this help us produce reproducers? We didn’t have a basis of evaluating our studies until we knew our objective.

Sanny added that the Word was a primary means to walk with the Lord, as it was a means also for salvation (1 Timothy 3:15). Therefore, we wanted to get people acquainted with what the Word had to say. For this purpose, our objective was the acquisition of Bible knowledge. By itself, this was incomplete. However, when a fellow came to know the Lord, we wanted him to know what the Bible said about certain things. We wanted a tool that helped him better understand what the Bible says. Then the application comes. The tool would aid him.

Downing pointed out that we had already decided that one means of demonstrating producing reproducers was to get people into the Word. However, Sanny questioned his objective, as a man trying to produce reproducers, relative to the Word. When he knew that, he could find out the tool that he needed.

Farah advocated teaching people what the Bible says and how it could best be applied in the shortest time. Robertson emphasized getting people into the Word for themselves. This was very important and differed from the usual approach of Bible school teaching.

Downing observed that the prospective reproducer needed to have a good grasp of how to feed on the Word to be a healthy Christian, how to study the Word to be an intelligent Christian, and how to apply the Word to be a warring Christian.

After a discussion on whether materials were vital at the start of the Christian life or best used later when we were trying to get them into the Bible for themselves, Sanny again emphasized:

We are talking about needs. We need to know what we need and why before we can decide what kind. The primary objective. The basic principles that I want to see in these tools. The cost in time and money compared to the expected dividends. In the light of these things, what are my alternatives? I will get everything available and look it over. Then I will ask someone else to produce it for me or to see what is in some other language and translate it…or ‘cook up my own.’ If I know what I want, then I have a basis for my selection.

Sparks mentioned four stages of helping a man in the Word:

  • Teach him the things he needs basically as a new convert.
  • Meet the problems which he faces, in the Word.
  • Lead him into the Scriptures so that he can discover for himself the things that he needs now.
  • Lead him into a method of study where he can eventually continue to reproduce these three things.

Sanny asked whether the above four stages would change our approach. After all, “the basic assumption that any of our materials are needed may be unfounded. When I teach a person, I don’t rely on a tool; I use a tool, but that comes later. This surfaces a problem which, I believe, has developed over the years in The Navigators.”

Sanny reiterated: “I want this person to get to know what the Bible says, and I want to see him apply it to his life and teach him how to do this for himself and eventually share this with someone else.”

Sanny concluded: “Our basic thinking has to be clarified if we are going to arrive at any satisfactory conclusion about materials and we will have to be together in our conclusion.”

After these extended—even laborious—discussions, there was a consensus that materials help us in our objective by:45

  • Getting a person to know what the Bible says
  • Getting him to apply it to his life
  • Teaching him how to do this for himself
  • Teaching him to repeat the process

Should getting Christians into the Word be a secondary objective of The Navigators? We decided that getting people to know the Word is absolutely basic in the accomplishment of our objectives but is not necessarily a Nav objective.46

A week later, Roy Robertson led the OPC47 in revisiting the matter of materials, paying particular attention to reports of our field experience.

Foster noted that “On the basis of our past . . . a minimum of basic tools is needed for a man’s personal life and ministry, whether it be the man himself or the one with whom he is working. In the past, Dawson developed quite a few tools for the man himself, but certain other materials have emerged to help us in the ministry with other men. The tools always have a reproducing effect. . . . Bible study and Scripture memory are the basic materials needed to get the job done. . . . We have felt in the past that basic materials, such as the notebook materials, do help in the discipline of the inner life.”48

Sparks declared that, “Our Bible study materials overseas need a complete revision . . . if we want to provide them in a way which accords with our standards. The John series needs reworking, with a stronger evangelistic thrust. We need changes in our Wheel series: It is not too practical because the person majors on the Word for a month or so, then prayer, then witnessing. He needs a well-balanced and rounded diet. Furthermore, these materials are not very helpful for groups. People need variety. Finally, the series lacks an emphasis on the work and person of Christ. I like the IBS and Lessons on Christian Living.”

It seems, he added, that we put too much emphasis on publishing courses. “Content will come more from those in study groups than in correspondence courses. Indeed, we have still not discovered how to draw from such courses in order to design Bible studies. Perhaps a single course can meet the needs of small groups and correspondents if our initial studies are adapted for both.”

Myers completely agreed: “The emphasis should be on small groups . . . with a strong emphasis on the person of Christ. We must improve the transition between question-and-answer studies and the passage or chapter analysis. Verse analysis isn’t enough.”

Foster added: “Our office team at the Glen agrees that our present materials are not adequate. A tremendous lack exists in Bible study, so we need to produce our own materials. Although KLB49 is being produced by Moody, their prices will be out of reach for us. What could we produce at the Glen that would be adaptable in other languages and cultures? Our big need is manpower to do this.”

Boardman chimed in: “I feel the same as Doug, especially on the Wheel series. The John series needs to be reworked and the Wheel series needs more content, especially on Christ. More doctrinal content is necessary; for example, on the Holy Spirit and Satan.”

Sparks advocated a new course as an evangelistic study for the home, a tremendous way to recruit key people in evangelism.

Downing mentioned an outline for a new Bible study for servicemen, which mixes the topics of the Wheel series but moves forward to bridge into verse and chapter analyses.

Foster suggested four ground rules for developing a course:

  1. Investigation
  2. Application
  3. Process: Teaching them to study on their own, eventually replacing the books.
  4. Engagement: Focusing on the dynamics of being a teacher, rather than merely handing out books. We don’t want a course that can just be handed out.

Sanny commented that we must “resist a tendency to let any tool do the work by itself.” Robertson agreed, saying if we are to get a person into the Word regularly, it has to be by personal contact.50

Sparks: What about the production and financing of materials? When a course is developed at the Glen, the overseas men should test it in the grassroots and improve it before we begin large-scale production.

Robertson noted that every representative on the field can produce his own Bible studies. This has the advantage that the materials will be relevant, personal, and fresh. However, there are three dangers: Our thinking is always evolving, we may become sidetracked, and there might be too much duplication.51 An alternative is to produce materials at headquarters, using a committee comprised of field and HQ staff.

After further discussion, Sanny stated that there needs to be one full-time person to develop these materials, which will add to our budget. Similarly, if we are going to increase our prayer, we will further add to our budget. In the US, materials carry their own weight. What about other countries?

Robertson observed: “Because there is a trend to produce more personal Bible studies, it makes sense to enlist other groups or join cooperative efforts to produce materials. For example, churches and missions in Kenya are collaborating to produce materials in Swahili; our role is to help them get started.”

Foster cautiously concurred, “Some of our field staff are using materials by Campus Crusade, Soul-Winning Made Easy, and The Navigators. He offered two cautions: Ensure that four or five basic things are completed and secure the rights to such materials.”52

Robertson emphasized that finances are a real problem. To what extent can we get out from under the burden of sending out a large number of simple studies and being responsible financially for this?

Myers explained that this issue had been explored by the materials committee. One approach discussed was for the courses to be made available overseas in the same way as they are in the US. However, if a group or church wants them, they would be charged. However, if they are requesting us to correct their answers, as we have practiced in the past, the minimum charge is $1.70 for correction. Actually, the value of correcting the courses is very small, but it does enable us to give out a diploma.53

Sparks added that, if we can, it is always best to correct the studies, but we can keep a personal touch without having to correct each question. Dan Piatt set things up in Europe so that, when a booklet was sent out, people could send back a completion card and get the next step. Or they could send the booklet back for correction. Most people do not do so. Costs, of course, vary greatly by country.

Sanny ended the session by pointing out that the one remaining decision is who should be the person assigned to develop and revise our materials.54

In the final OPC session, the leaders recognized that, because the use of local languages, the name and identity of The Navigators would assume increasing importance in later years.55 Sanny added that he was “convinced of the value of language study and we will keep the pressure on and there will have to be very clear reasons for exceptions.”56 Downing pointed out that the name Navigators doesn’t mean nearly as much in other countries as it does in the US. Most of the Swedes would be surprised if they visited America to find a branch of the Navigator work over here!

Materials in the 1960s and 1970s

Four years later to his staff, Sanny reflected succinctly on our history:

There is a Navigator work today, not because of memory courses, principles, methods or training programs, but because a man claimed the promises of God. He has renewed to us the promises that Daws claimed—promises like Isaiah 54:1-3 and Isaiah 60:22. And we will see those promises made good, fulfilling the purpose of God . . .57

Nevertheless, Lorne was properly appreciative of the quality of the materials that we were producing.58 He commented to his staff toward the end of 1965:

In this day when . . . an ever-growing mass of printed matter competes for the attention of people, the visual form of our own materials becomes more important. In fact, rightly or not, many people judge an organization by its appearance on paper. We often hear comments on our materials, and are most thankful for a man like Don Enright who maintains such high standards and distinctive quality in all our art work and layout. Most recent reminder of this is a citation from the Christian Camp and Conference Association awarding first prize to Eagle Lake Boys Camp in the camp brochure contest, small camp classification. Along with the art, of course, is the quality printing done by Bob Jero and our print shop crew. We appreciate them and all they are doing to turn out these fine materials.59

In 1969, the divisional directors laid out two general descriptions of how the Navigator ministry develops. Clearly, materials would be especially important in what was then called our Go Plan:

Grow Plan (Concentrated)

Good seed
Pools of manpower
Follow up

Go Plan

Lay and couples ministries
Home Bible studies
General conferences
Church ministries
Correspondence courses

Both are needed: “Neither one should be done to the exclusion of the other.”60

Meanwhile, the Navigators Log61 was developing strongly under the editorship of Monte Unger. Comparing, for example, the issues from March 1968 through October 1970, the Log increased circulation from 40,000 to almost 70,000 copies. Numerous other magazines had used Log articles as reprints. For 1971, therefore, we published four instead of five Logs and increased the number of pages from sixteen to twenty per issue, using four-color covers. The objectives62 remained:

  • To inform readers about the work of The Navigators so as to solicit prayer, finances, and personal involvement
  • To minister to readers so that they grew spiritually
  • To capture the attention and reading time of an ever-increasing audience

Sanny found it necessary to remind his staff that neither the Log nor his Dear Gang letters are manuals for Navigator Representatives. He wrote: “The Log will report news of interest and help to an ever-broadening readership. The “Dear Gang” is a bulletin reporting news and activities to try to keep you up-to-date on what is going on. It is not a carefully worked out brochure or manual that tries to give you a balanced perspective.”63

On the topic of what might be called “manuals,” we find an instructive comment from Warren Myers in 1972:

One of the things we need in the Navs is to have a number of papers—either various originals or compilations—on subjects in Nav philosophy. There may come a time when there is too much writing being done but that is not the case now. “Teamwork” and “The Nav Home” are about all that have been produced and widely circulated. Maybe these papers will stimulate others.64

Also in 1972, Gordon Adams moved to the Glen from Texas to take over the US materials department from Jerry Marshall. Tape distribution continued under Ken Metzger.

Research and development began again in March 1972 when Russ Korth led a team65 which came up with four general guidelines for our materials:

  1. They should make a direct contribution to the objective of The Navigators.
  2. They should be Word-centered and result in the practical application of biblical principles.
  3. We should have phased materials for each stage of spiritual maturity.
  4. They should meet a determined standard of quality in doctrine, graphics, literary style and relevance.

The team met again in July to work together for four-to-six weeks, having as priorities:66

  1. Revising the Studies in Christian Living series, including a study guide
  2. Developing a study guide on John or Romans for evangelistic Bible studies
  3. Preparing a quiet-time booklet

The US Navs produced in the early 1970s a film entitled The Hard Way, accompanied by a booklet on how to become a “highly-trained Christ-centered disciple.” This was shown at Expo 197267 at which we had a large presence.68

Materials introduced during 1973 included: Leading Evangelistic Studies using the Gospel of John; Appointment with God; Design for Discipleship.

New materials in the pipeline included a booklet on advanced methods of Bible Study and a leader’s guide for Design for Discipleship.69

Somewhat independently, Monte Unger presented a report on communications to the International Leadership Team in December 1977. He estimated that communications was absorbing at least $250,000 per year.

He outlined the work of his department and described the emergence of a community of communicators. Thirty-two staff had attended his successful 1977 seminars in Germany and Singapore.

He described some new products under consideration:

  • “International Nav News” for our basic work force
  • Discipleship Journal
  • “Help Our Missionaries Explain” kit
  • Video cassettes

He also recommended the training of regional communicators within the USA.70

At US headquarters, our US vice president for development, Rod Sargent, introduced in 1977 a monthly devotional guide called the Daily Walk.71 This was mailed free for up to five issues, after which the reader was invited to enroll. At peak volume, the guide was mailed to 150,000 addresses per month. It generated considerable income for the US Navs, being treated as a donor acquisition resource that ministered to people as well as providing new names to our organization for funding. Thousands of people knew The Navigators only through the Daily Walk. Eventually, as Christian publishers developed more and more devotional Bibles and as Internet materials became available, enrollment declined rapidly. We discontinued our participation in 2006.

What about radio? LeRoy Eims recorded more than a thousand five-minute radio programs for Back to the Bible which were used also on more than sixty other Christian stations. This was a remarkable effort and a source of much blessing to many.72

Incidentally, Lorne gave five brief radio interviews in 1982 for “The Bible Study Hour” with Dr. James Boice.73

During the 1980s, we became increasingly committed to contextualizing our materials. The necessity for this process in markets outside the US was well explained in two papers74 presented to our consultation on special groups in 1982 in Malaysia: Warren Myers on “Contextualizing Present Nav Materials and Methods”; Jim Petersen on “Materials.”

Publishing in Asia


Four factors shaped our publishing history in Singapore, resulting in what is now NavMedia as it emerged in the 1970s:

  1. Our campus ministry was expanding, so that the demand for basic discipleship materials such as BWC, TMS, SCL75 increased. We decided to print locally.
  2. Our exports increased: We supplied materials to other Asian countries and we were also able to respond to many requests from African churches seeking complementary materials.
  3. Our annual conferences in Singapore were attracting thousands, many of them new laborers. So, the churches asked for materials. The Graham crusade in 1978 also broadened our sales.
  4. In the early 1980s, we introduced the 2:7 Series. Hundreds of churches embraced the series as their primary training program for discipleship. Again, it was locally printed to lower the price.

During early 1972, Monte Unger produced our Singapore film strip.76

However, the market in Singapore was changing. Unfair business practices by large retailers suppressed competition. Then, we discontinued our exclusive rights because retailers began to buy directly and undercut our pricing. We lost relationships with local retailers.77 Thereafter, our dominant customers were local churches.78 Other limiting factors included changes in the reading culture and the advent of internet purchases.

In 2002, NavMedia was incorporated as a private limited entity79 with the aim of serving the Body of Christ in Singapore. We were then given the right to be sole distributors of US NavPress within Singapore, with freedom to sell locally printed books throughout Asia; in practice, mainly Malaysia and the Philippines.

We held seminars and workshops80 for local church leaders (especially younger pastors) unfamiliar with our materials and ignorant of The Navigators.

In 2012, NavMedia branded itself as a one-stop center for discipleship resources. This meant a stronger focus on studies and tools to help churches and local ministries, and a limiting of printing or purchasing books. Although books had a higher margin, it was easy to be left with surplus stock.81

By 2016, NavMedia’s business was around 10 percent staff, 75 percent churches, 15 percent other countries.82

South Korea

In March 1973, Korea NavPress was launched with a mandate to translate and publish materials which were helpful for our field ministry. Most of their publications have been focused on evangelism, spiritual growth, disciple making, the development of exemplary Christian living, our calling and world vision. Thus, especially in the early years, NavPress staff were selected from our campus team leaders or those with equivalent ministry experience, and often worked part-time.

Korean churches developed a growing interest, so that our materials spread widely. NavPress expanded, drawing employees from our ministry at Seoul National University. Many evangelical churches used our Bible study materials and books.

Lee Kyung Joon became full-time administrator in 1978-1979 and plans were laid to open a Navigator book store. It opened at Yunhee Dong near our Korean HQ and Hong Seung Gap was appointed manager. By 1981, NavPress sales83 had exceeded US $100,000. Some Nav materials were translated and published, such as Design for Descipleship, The Lost Art of Disciplemaking, Disciples Are Made not Born. The following year, seven Nav books were translated into Korean and published.84 In May 1982, we purchased a new NavPress building and the work of translation was further developed.

By 1981, NavPress annual sales of materials in US dollars during the six years ending in 1982-1983 were as follows, as show in the link below:

Table 2: NavPress Annual Sales 1977-1982

In the decades that followed, sales began to decline. There were two reasons for this. Some denominations began to use their own materials, and the Internet reduced interest in printed publications. Neither of these factors was unusual. Other Christian publishers experienced the same trend.

Some of our Korea NavPress staff had inner conflicts about working in a supporting ministry (publishing) as contrasted with our traditional full-time ministry staff. Because we had recruited them from our field ministries, they wanted to get back into what they saw as the cutting edge.  The publishing team was reduced to only four employees; their main work was selling existing publications rather than developing new ones.85

Asia: General

Throughout Asia, Carrie Sydnor was serving in Kuala Lumpur as Waldron Scott’s communications assistant86 when Paul and Margaret Hensley arrived in 1971. She returned during their last year, 1980, and devoted almost all of her time to the excellent prayer guide, “Breakthrough.” Paul87 had the task of checking her work and interacting on her emerging text.

Early in 1974, Paul Hensley wrote an important paper advocating enhanced communications throughout The Navigators.

He defined good communications as the effective use of media to transmit a message and went on to show the levels of communication at work in The Navigators and to offer suggestions for their improvement in both our intensive and extensive ministries. After analyzing the status quo, he urged that “the most pressing need is to organize the majority of our communications functions under one department with a director at the vice-president level. This would enable us to execute an overall strategy linked with our international aims and objectives. We could avoid costly duplication of effort . . .”

Paul’s paper was well received, but the turbulence of the times and the birth of US NavPress overtook his recommendations. At the time, he was our country leader in Malaysia. In his paper, he used an insightful quotation from an article “Communicate or Else” by Engstrom & Dayton, namely: “Good communication, not structure, is the cement that holds any organization together. Given clear and communicable goals, adequate resources, motivated people, almost any structure will do the job.”

Other developments in 1972 in the PAN division included a decision to discontinue the Asia-Australasia Log, replacing it with the international Log. Each country in PAN would produce its own “NavNews” or equivalent, thus helping local leaders “grow” rather than “go” into communications. The PAN regional directors envisioned a new “PAN-O-rama” and had invited Carrie Sydnor to return to the division after she finished journalism school. Sandy Fairservice would attend journalism school in New Zealand and then work as their communicator.88

The story continues in Materials and Communications: Part 2.

By Donald McGilchrist
11,067 words

See also articles on:

Navigators among the People of God
Overseas Policy Conference: 1961
Community Ministries
Corporate Identity
Ethos and Values
The Wheel: History
The Hand: History
Materials and Communications: Part 2


  1. From an October 1981 paper prepared for our consultation on special groups in Malaysia.
  2. In 1966, The Navigators composed a list of seventy-seven working definitions. The term “materials” was defined as “printed tools which further progress toward Christian goals.”
  3. Search the Scriptures
  4. Brooks was an author for the correspondence school at Biola University, who had written Basic Bible Work for Young Believers. Source: Fletcher to Weeks of January 10, 2012. Notes on the materials division of The Navigators.
  5. Source:  “History of Nav Materials” by Jim Hayden, 1946.
  6. Daws had access to a mimeograph machine and printed study materials as early as 1932: checklists for the Minute Men, handbooks for our campers, and blanks for correspondence courses. Source: Fletcher loc cit.
  7. See bulletin 48.
  8. Memo of March 29, 1951, p. 6. The conference also decided to sell Hume Lodge to secure cash.
  9. Report to our directors in San Francisco dated March 29, 1951, extracts.
  10. Originally known as “B-Rations” because the course was developed during World War II when many commodities were rationed. It later was renamed “Beginning with Christ.”
  11. It is said that when a concerned counselor came to Daws at the Glasgow crusade to tell him that they were running out of follow-up materials, Daws advised him not to worry because “They probably ran out of materials at Pentecost also!”
  12. Daws was elated by the support of the team. For example, “In Shreveport, Billy quoted the ‘B-Rations’ and Initial Test word perfectly and is plunging into Set 1 with great determination!” Jim Chew recalls how Joe Weatherly (YFC) started him in Scripture memory according to Daws’ requirement: “At one sitting, correctly quoted, unassisted, including references, eliminating doubt.” Source: Chew to McGilchrist, January 23, 2017.
  13. Sanny: Nav History session 5, July 8, 1959.
  14. Taiwan became the accepted name, rather than Formosa, after the nationalist faction moved to the island following the revolution of 1949.
  15. Even though Orient Crusades officially sponsored the project on Taiwan, the Chinese characters for Youth for Christ were displayed and known everywhere. YFC held their world congress in Japan in 1953 with Roy participating in intensive preparations for six months. Source: Developing a Heart for Mission, Robertson, p. 155 et seqq.
  16. Daws’ “Staff Bulletin” 75.
  17. Ibid, p. 3. Our work in Formosa was always under Orient Crusades.
  18. Source: “Dear Gang,” 1973-2.
  19. Source:  Log 55 to January 1954. The idea of the IR pack came from the Belgian Gospel Mission.
  20. “Dear Gang,” April 28, 1953.
  21. Extracts from letter of May 4, 1954 to a Mr. Wenger. However, supportively, we gave him prices and availability for the Keith L. Brooks courses in Spanish.
  22. Extracted from references in Nav Log. Our skeletal chronology. In 1960, we joined the Evangelical Press Association.
  23. “Dear Gang,” March 29, 1951.
  24. This new TMS offered sixty rather than 108 verses. It had three units, each consisting of a guidebook and verse cards.
  25. Joe and Dottie Shankle, who preceded the Reises, returned to the US for Joe’s last year of seminary.
  26. Illustrated in FOM edition 2, April 1982, p. 29.
  27. Illustrated in FOM 2, April 1982, p. 50.
  28. Keith L. Brooks studies. Because a few pastors objected to their Arminian emphasis, we worked out our own “Introduction to Bible Study.” Source: “Dear CoLaborers,” October 19, 1951.
  29. “Dear Gang,” January 1, 1954.
  30. See directive 9 of November 1952.
  31. Chuck Farah: Glen training program notes, July 1959.
  32. In 1984, Stacy Rinehart launched our US Leadership Development Institute and rapidly built up a relevant library. Then, from 2007 onward, Waldron Scott donated much of his personal library (1100 volumes) to be kept in our International Building.
  33. Sanny: Nav History, session 5, July 8, 1959.
  34. The declining numbers can be explained, at least in part, by the fact that we launched the New TMS in June 1957. If we take the longer view, our records show that enrollments in the TMS were old TMS, 1946 to 1959: 76,022; new TMS 1956 to 1958: 18,246; new TMS January to October 1959: 5,504. Thus, we can say that 100,000 men and women had enrolled by the end of 1959.
  35. Other materials produced in 1959 included the Log, the Notebook, Challenge, the “Dear Gang” letters, and many conference brochures. Source: area Reps conference, January 1960.
  36. The following list taken from OPC 1961, session 21.
  37. Source: background information on the World Mission Today, staff conference at the Glen, July 1959.
  38. OPC 1961, conclusion 25.
  39. Extracted from OPC 1961, session 22. Sanny added that the personal benefits of being on the Graham team included: “preparation of my own life, the securing of Glen Eyrie, the emphasis on The Navigators and the church, putting The Navigators in touch with key people . . .”
  40. Esperanto, “Dear Gang,” July 1957, via Paul Lilienberg. This language was designed by Zamenhof in 1887. Apparently, some two million people are now fluent. It is most common in Europe and East Asia. Some 25,000 books have been published in the language, including phrase books by the US Army. First complete Bible: 1926.
  41. Extracted from OPC 1961, session 16.
  42. What follows in this section is a reduced discussion of OPC 1961, session 27, January 19.
  43. In September 1964, we published the first six books of Studies in Christian Living.
  44. A Navigator illustration of five ways in which we should feed on the Word.
  45. OPC 1961, session 32, January 20.
  46. It is of interest that we have page proofs of The Living Word, “Compiled by Dawson Trotman and the Navigator staff” dated 1961. This was an extensive collection of portions of the Scriptures that were fit to be especially helpful for our mission. It is uncertain whether it was actually published.
  47. OPC 1961, session 36. Chaired by Robertson. Absent: Scott, Sargent, Eims.
  48. OPC 1961, session 36, p. 1. Final sentence adjusted to improve sense.
  49. Keith L. Brooks studies.
  50. This recalls an anecdote. At the highly successful Graham crusade in 1959, a counselor hurried up to Daws and explained, “We are going to run out of materials!” “Not a problem,” responded Daws. “They probably also ran out of materials at Pentecost.”
  51. “Our thinking is always evolving.” Yes, indeed . . . and the OPC discussion shows us at a moment of much ferment.
  52. From 1956, we had no longer been able to order centrally the Keith Brooks studies (KLB), such as Basic Bible Work for Young Believers and Christian Character. Our individual staff could still order copies. Source: “Dear Gang,” May 1956.
  53. We used similar diplomas at least through the 1970s as one way of demonstrating our competence even though our missionaries usually had not been to Bible school or seminary.
  54. OPC 1961, session 36, chaired by Robertson. “How to Spend a Day in Prayer,” published in December 1962, Nav booklet 5.
  55. For additional comments, see OPC 1961, session 38.
  56. Spanish TMS launched in January 1962. “Dear Gang,” January 31, 1962: Skip Gray delivered his first message in Spanish.
  57. “Dear Gang,” July 9, 1965-13. Note also that a conclusion of our directors conference in December 1967 was that “work in a country should not start with crusades, materials, and offices. These may be useful in developing disciple-makers after the ministry gets under way.”
  58. Space was at a premium and Glen Eyrie was going through a financial crisis. Our publications department moved into the annex, crowding the art department on the first floor.
  59. “Dear Gang,” September 17, 1965.
  60. Source: “Dear Staff,” 1970-2.
  61. From January 1975, the title was shortened to NavLog.
  62. Source: An evaluation provided for our staff in December 11, 1970. Notably, a June 1970 survey by outside consultants indicated that 64 percent of readers read the Log thoroughly, the highest readership percentage of any Christian magazine attested by the consultants. In late 1969, Jerry Marshall took over materials and printing, while Chuck Unger was responsible for publications. Source: “Dear Staff,” 1969-11.
  63. “Dear Gang,” 1968-4.
  64. Source: Myers to Scott of November 17, 1972. Doubtless egged on by Scotty, Myers reported that the “philosophizing” and regional director conferences in New Zealand had before them eleven topics “and even the five that were picked were somewhat exhausting.”
  65. Dave Bertch, Chuck Bollar, Chuck Broughton, Dan Greene, and Russ Korth. Source: “Dear Gang,” 1972-4. Note that the team were field people, experienced in the battle.
  66. The R&D team also produced a book on how to do analysis-type Bible study and a guide book for the SCL series.
  67. This event was the most visible gathering of the Jesus Movement. Sponsored by Campus Crusade, it took place in Dallas, with some 80,000 day-time participants.
  68. Bern Thompson had moved to COS to join Unger’s downtown Creative Center in early 1973. He worked with Unger on The Hard Way, which was emblematic of our ministry approach during that period, and supported Waldron Scott in the rushed production of “The Task Before Us,” which successfully opened the Lausanne Congress in July 1974. He transferred to the team that Dan Rich was assembling for US NavPress in 1978.
  69. Source: Summary by Mayhall, December 3, 1973.
  70. Source: December 12, 1977 ILT minutes, section 17.
  71. The Daily Walk was produced by Walk Thru the Bible with whom we had an informal agreement. As their largest client, we were soon paying them $200,000 to $400,000 per year. We inserted our own promotional pages in the central marketing section of the Walk, eventually including memory verse cards. In the early 1990s, we added Closer Walk and Family Walk.
  72. Recordings of these radio programs available under Leroy Eims on These brief programs were recorded in two large batches, the first being 1973-1975. Voices used included Ben Morris and Harry Elders, and the original title was “New Dimensions.” Fred Krebs had joined us in August 1972 and editing these programs was one of his first assignments. The original request had come from New Life Radio in Minneapolis.
  73. See our fiftieth anniversary file for text.
  74. COSG papers, p. 213-218.
  75. BWC=Beginning with Christ, TMS=Topical Memory System, SCL=Studies in Christian Living.
  76. “Dear Gang,” 1972-1, eighteen minutes. Bern Thompson came to the Glen from New Zealand for training as Unger’s assistant. By 1974, Bern was associate editor of the Log.
  77. In 2013, Tyndale granted us exclusive rights to some core discipleship resources, but this is not profitable.
  78. Starting Over and Legacy of Leadership (Doug Sparks) sold out within their first year.
  79. NavMedia directors are appointed by the executive committee of Navigators Singapore.
  80. Typically, one-to-three hours to familiarize them and explain how best to use our products.
  81. On a typical print run of one thousand copies—unless there is a specific conference order—NavMedia can usually break even at three hundred. Print-on-demand continues to lower these runs.
  82. Source for NavMedia Singapore: Royston Koh to McGilchrist of June 28, 2016.
  83. Source: Annual Gross Sales in McGilchrist schedule for November 2016, drawn from country plans and summaries provided by John Ha.
  84. What Every Christian Should Know about Growing, Be the Leader You were Meant to Be, The Life and Ministry of Jesus Christ- 1, 2, 3, Multiplying Disciples, The Art of Personal Witnessing.
  85. These paragraphs on Korea NavPress are taken from Yoon Yong Sub, dated May 31, 2016.
  86. Source: Hensley to McGilchrist of April 15, 2016.
  87. Paul was a skilled communicator throughout his long Nav career. One of his lasting contributions is his extensive collection of Nav photographs, taken over many years.
  88. Source: Report by Simmons, November 28, 1973.
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